Black holes are astronomical objects with such a strong gravitational force that not even light can escape. While the idea of objects that would trap light has been around since the 18th century, the first direct observation of black holes occurred in 2015.
Since then, physicists have conducted countless theoretical and experimental studies aimed at better understanding these wonderful cosmic objects. This has led to many discoveries and theories about the unique properties, characteristics and dynamics of black holes.
Researchers at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik recently conducted a theoretical study to explore the possibility of vortices in black holes. Their paper was published in physical review messagesshows that black holes should theoretically be able to recognize whirlpool structures.
“Recently, a new quantum framework was introduced for black holes, in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates of gravitons (same quantum gravity),” said Florian Connell, one of the researchers who conducted the study. Deer. “Until our article was published, rotating black holes had not been thoroughly studied in this framework. However, they may not only exist, but may also be the rule rather than the exception.”
Kuhnell and colleagues Gia Dvali and Michael Zantedici have made many calculations based on existing physical theories, in particular the recently devised quantum model of black holes based on Bose-Einstein graviton condensates. The main goal of their study was to examine spinning black holes at the quantum level, to determine if they would actually accept vortex structures.
“Since periodic Bose-Einstein condensates have been extensively studied in laboratories, they are known to accept a vortex structure if they are spinning fast enough,” Connell said. “We’ve taken this as an invitation to look for those structures as well in models of rotating black holes — and we’ve found them.”
Kuhnell and colleagues show that a maximum-spin black hole can be described as vortex graviton densities. This is in line with previous studies indicating that extreme black holes are stable against so-called Hawking evaporation (that is, black-body radiation thought to be spewing out from the black hole’s outer surface, or event horizon).
In addition, the researchers showed that in the presence of traveling charges, the black hole’s total vortex traps the magnetic field flux of the measurement field, which could lead to distinct, experimentally observable emissions. The team’s theoretical predictions could thus open up new possibilities for observing new types of matter, including charged dark matter.
“The vortex is a completely new property of black holes, which at the classical level (for example, if one closes one’s eyes to their quantum structure) is completely characterized by three entities: mass, spin and charge,” Connell said. “That’s what we’ve learned from the textbooks – so far. We’ve shown that we need to add a vortex.”
The team’s theoretical presence of vortices in black holes offers a possible explanation for the lack of Hawking radiation for black holes with maximum rotation. In the future, this theory could pave the way for new experimental observations and theoretical conclusions.
For example, black hole vortex structures can explain the extremely strong magnetic fields originating from active galactic cores in our universe. In addition, they are likely the origin of nearly all known magnetic fields.
“We recently created the black hole’s spin field,” Connell added. “There is a wealth of important and exciting questions to address, including those related to the applications mentioned above. Furthermore, future gravitational wave observations of merging black holes, each containing a vortex (of several of those), may open the door to these and quantum aspects space-time erotic.”
Jia Dvali et al., Vortexes in black holes, physical review messages (2022). DOI: 10.1103/ PhysRevLett.129.061302
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