People with type 2 diabetes respond to exercise differently

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Regular exercise helps prevent and delay the development of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet, along with a team of international scientists, have discovered that activation of the immune system in skeletal muscle during exercise may underlie the difference in how individuals with type 2 diabetes perceive and respond to exercise. These results were published in the journal science progress.

Individuals with type 2 diabetes typically experience a dysregulated inflammatory response in multiple tissues, which is associated with disease complications such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. In this study, researchers reveal an essential role of exercise-responsive cytokines, exerkines, on Muscle and skeletal development and growth in individuals with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes.

“In people with type 2 diabetes, an acute bout of exercise activates the immune system in a distinct and enhanced way compared to healthy volunteers,” says Professor Juleen R. Zierath in the Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery and the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology at Karolinska Institutet, who led the study.

Untrained men diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited with healthy volunteers of the same age and body weight. Volunteers were asked to perform one bout of the exercise on a cycle ergometer. The research team collected blood and skeletal muscle biopsies in which they measured response to exercise.

The researchers found that several cytokines, molecules produced by the immune system in response to stress, were produced in skeletal muscle of individuals with type 2 diabetes. The effect of these cytokines was tested in cells in culture to determine whether those molecules affect the way they interact Skeletal muscle cells with exercise.

Exercising regularly reduces the inflammatory response

“Given the health-promoting effects of regular physical exercise on metabolism and skeletal muscle Function, the exacerbated inflammatory response in individuals with type 2 diabetes is likely to be a beneficial response to acute exercise”, says Professor Julien R. activation immune system It is likely to decrease if the exercises are repeated regularly during the training regimes,” she adds.

Reducing inflammation may be beneficial for controlling glucose and alleviating complications associated with type 2 diabetes.

“Now we need to understand how we can adjust inflammatory response for exercise. Doing so may enhance the benefits of exercise and help people better manage type 2 diabetic with appropriate training protocols,” says Nicholas Bellon, assistant professor in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet and first author of the paper.

Musculoskeletal inflammation puzzle

more information:
Nicolas J. Pillon et al, Characteristic exercise-induced inflammatory response and exerkine induction in skeletal muscle of people with type 2 diabetes, science progress (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / sciadv.abo3192

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