How microglia contribute to brain development by interacting with neonatal neurons

رعاية الخلايا العصبية النامية: كيف تساهم الخلايا الدبقية الصغيرة في نمو الدماغ من خلال التفاعل مع الخلايا العصبية لحديثي الولادة

Graphic abstract. attributed to him: cell reports (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.celrep.2022.111369

The Laboratory of Neuroimmunology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest (IEM), Hungary, led by Odam Dens, describes a direct interaction site between microglia and the cell body of developing neurons, and reveals their role during brain development. This finding may be of interest for developmental disorders affecting the nervous system.

The study that presented the results of the research was published in cell reports.

The scientific community Microglia are known as the main immune cell of the central system Nervous system And as a major regulator of inflammatory processes in the brain. The role of inflammatory processes and glia in neurodevelopmental disorders is also increasingly recognized.

The investigation of the role of microglia in physiological and pathological conditions has become a dynamically developing field of research in recent years. The research group has accumulated a great deal of knowledge in the field of communication between microglia and neurons, and several of their publications on this topic have received international attention.

They discover a new form of communication established through direct connections between microglia and the cell body of neurons, called somatic microglia junctions, and reveal the role of these specialized communication sites in microglia-mediated protection of injured neurons.

Although the important role of microglia during brain development has been suggested by several previous studies, the exact cellular communication pathways that enable microglia to influence neuronal development and the formation of neural networks in the brain have not been clear.

Nourishing developing neurons: how microglia, the brain's master immune cells, contribute to brain development by interacting with neurons

Microglia (green) contact neonatal neurons (red) in the mouse hippocampus. Credit: Institute of Experimental Medicine, EÖTVÖS LORÁND . Research Network

In particular, it has not been well understood how and through what kind of connections neurons that have not yet demonstrated interaction with other neurons in the absence of synapses may receive guidance from microglia to evolve into complex networks in the developing neocortex.

Csaba Cserép and his student Dóra Anett Schwarcz played a prominent role in implementing the research programme, with an additional contribution from the István Katona research group at IEM.

During their investigations, the researchers used high-resolution molecular dissection techniques, combining light and Electron microscopeand ex vivo imaging studies. Using a multifaceted approach, the researchers demonstrated direct connections between microglia and developing neurons during embryonic development and after birth.

“The special, dynamically changing anatomical connections between microglia and developing and immature neurons are similar in many respects to previously discovered somatic glia connections, and their special molecular structure and microstructure enable them to continuously monitor and effectively influence neuronal development and integration into complex networks,” said Kasaba Chesireb, first author of the work.

When the researchers blocked communication through key glial receptors that are highly enriched at these sites, the development of the normal structure of the cerebral cortex was disrupted. And therefore, microglia It should be considered an important organizational cell type of brain development Via private interaction sites and beyond.

Concluded group leader Ádám Dénes, recent author of the publication.

Synapse-related genes are altered in microglia by contextual fear conditioning

more information:
Csaba Cserép et al, Microglial control of neuronal development via somatic purinergic junctions, cell reports (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.celrep.2022.111369

Presented by the Institute of Experimental Medicine

the quote: Caring for Developing Neurons: How Microglia Contribute to Brain Development by Interacting with Newborn Neurons (2022, September 20) Retrieved on September 20, 2022 from -neurons-microglia-contribute-brain .programming language

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