A new model for dark matter

A new model for dark matter

This NASA Hubble House Telescope picture exhibits the distribution of darkish matter within the middle of the large galaxy cluster Abell 1689, which accommodates about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Darkish matter is an invisible type of matter that makes up many of the mass of the universe. Hubble can’t see darkish matter straight. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the impact of gravitational lensing, wherein mild from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by interference of matter throughout the cluster. The researchers used the noticed positions of 135 lensed photographs of 42 background galaxies to calculate the situation and quantity of darkish matter within the cluster. They mapped the inferred darkish matter concentrations, in blue, to a picture of the cluster taken by Hubble’s Superior Digital camera for Surveys. If the cluster’s gravity got here from solely seen galaxies, the lensing distortions could be a lot weaker. The map reveals that the densest focus of darkish matter is on the coronary heart of the cluster. Abell 1689 is situated 2.2 billion light-years from Earth. Picture taken June 2002. Credit score: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Expertise, House Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (College of Basque Nation, Spain), and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins College)

Darkish matter stays one of many nice mysteries of recent physics. Clearly, it should exist, as a result of with out darkish matter, for instance, the movement of galaxies can’t be defined. However darkish matter has by no means been doable to detect in an experiment.

There are at present many proposals for brand new experiments: geared toward detecting darkness Factor straight by their scattering from the elements of the atomic nuclei of the detection medium, i.e. protons and neutrons.

A group of researchers — Robert McGee and Aaron Pearce of the College of Michigan and Geli Ellor of the Johannes Gutenberg College in Mainz, Germany — has proposed a brand new darkish matter candidate: HYPER, or “Extremely Interactive Particulate Relics.”

Within the HYPER mannequin, a while after the formation of darkish matter in early universeIts interplay with strange matter is surprisingly getting stronger – making it doable to detect it at this time and on the similar time explaining the abundance of darkish matter.

The brand new variety at midnight matter sector

As a result of the seek for heavy darkish matter particles, or WIMPS, has not but led to success, the analysis group is on the lookout for various darkish matter particles, particularly lighter ones. On the similar time, one would usually anticipate section transitions At the hours of darkness sector – in spite of everything, there are various extra within the seen sector, the researchers say. However earlier research are inclined to neglect it.

“There hasn’t been a constant mannequin of darkish matter for the mass vary that some deliberate experiments hope to hit,” stated Elor, the postdoctoral researcher. “Nonetheless, our HYPER mannequin exhibits that section transition can really assist make darkish matter detection simpler.” in theoretical physics at JGU.

The problem for an enough mannequin: If darkish matter interacts strongly with strange matter, then the (precisely identified) quantity of it fashioned within the early universe could be very small, which contradicts astrophysical observations. Nonetheless, if produced in the correct amount, the interplay could be too weak to detect darkish matter in present experiments.

“Our central thought, which underpins the HYPER mannequin, is that the interplay out of the blue modifications abruptly – so we will get the most effective of each worlds: the correct amount of darkish matter and quite a lot of interplay in order that we will detect it,” McGee stated.

A new model for dark matter

Constraints within the mass- and nucleon-intermediate coupling degree from the cooling of HB stars [25] and SN 1987A [12]in addition to uncommon Kaon decomposition [26] (grey shading). credit score: Bodily evaluation letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

And that is how the researchers envision it: In particle physics, the interplay is often mediated by a specific particle, the so-called medium — and so is the interplay of darkish matter with strange matter. Each the composition of darkish matter and its detection perform happen through this medium, with the energy of the interplay depending on its mass: the larger the mass, the weaker the interplay.

The medium should first be heavy sufficient in order that the correct amount of darkish matter is fashioned and later sufficient mild that darkish matter will be detected in any respect. Answer: There was a section transition after the formation of darkish matter, wherein the mass of the medium out of the blue decreased.

“So, on the one hand, the quantity of darkish matter stays fixed, and alternatively, the interplay is enhanced or strengthened in such a approach that the darkish matter is straight detectable,” Pearce stated.

The brand new mannequin covers nearly the complete parameter vary of the deliberate experiments

“The HYPER mannequin of darkish matter is ready to cowl nearly the complete vary that the brand new experiments are making obtainable,” Ellor stated.

Particularly, the analysis group first thought-about the utmost cross-section of the interplay medium with the protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus to be in line with astronomical observations and a few particle physics decompositions. The following step was to see if there was a mannequin of darkish matter that confirmed this interplay.

“And that is the place we got here up with the thought of ​​transition,” McGee stated. “We then calculated the quantity of darkish matter current within the universe after which simulated the section transition utilizing our calculations.”

There are a slew of limitations to remember, similar to a set quantity of darkish matter.

“Right here, we now have to systematically contemplate and embrace a number of situations, for instance, asking the query whether or not it’s actually sure that our medium doesn’t out of the blue result in the formation of darkish matterAnd that, after all, would not should be the case,” Ellor stated. However ultimately, we have been satisfied that HYPER Mannequin Works “.

Publication of the analysis within the journal Bodily evaluation letters.

extra data:
Gilly Elor et al, Maximizing Direct Detection Utilizing Extremely Interacting Particle Darkish Matter, Bodily evaluation letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

Introduction of
College of Michigan

the quote: A New Mannequin for Darkish Matter (2023, January 23) Retrieved January 23, 2023 from https://phys.org/information/2023-01-dark.html

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